SummaryRead the full fact sheet
- Erectile dysfunction (or impotence) is when you cannot get or keep an erection that enables you to have sex.
- Most cases of erectile dysfunction have a physical cause.
- It is normal for men to experience erectile dysfunction from time to time, perhaps from tiredness or drinking too much alcohol.
- Ongoing erectile dysfunction should be investigated by a doctor.
- Men with diabetes are at a higher risk of erectile dysfunction especially if their diabetes is not well controlled.
- Treatments include counselling, oral medications, vacuum devices, penile injections and implants.
Erectile dysfunction (or impotence) is a man’s inability to get or keep an erection that allows sexual activity with penetration. Erectile dysfunction is not a disease, but a symptom of some other problem – physical, psychological or a mixture of both.
Don’t worry about occasional failure to get or keep an erection. This is normal. Some of the causes include drinking too much alcohol, anxiety and tiredness. Unless it continues, there is no reason to be concerned. However, if your erectile dysfunction is ongoing, see a doctor.
Treatments for erectile dysfunction include medications given orally (usually tablets), counselling, vacuum penile pump devices, injections directly into the penis, and penile prosthetic implants.
Causes of erectile dysfunction
Doctors used to think that erectile dysfunction was mainly caused by psychological factors, such as anxiety or depression. In fact, most cases of erectile dysfunction are caused by physical illness. Psychological problems cause only one in ten cases of persistent erectile dysfunction.
Physical erectile dysfunction happens over a period of months or years, and is often a gradual loss of function. If erections still occur spontaneously overnight or in the morning, the problem may be psychological.
Erectile dysfunction can be due to:
- physical illness – erectile dysfunction is often associated with conditions that affect blood flow in the penis, such as: diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, obesity, heart disease and multiple sclerosis
- psychological factors – a man’s sexual drive or performance can be affected by stress such as problems at work, relationship difficulties or financial worries. Psychiatric conditions, and feeling depressed or anxious about poor sexual performance can also result in erectile dysfunction
- a combination of physical illness and psychological factors – physical problems with maintaining an erection may cause the man to feel anxious about sexual performance, which makes the problem worse
- medications – prescribed medicines used to treat high blood pressure, high cholesterol, depression and psychiatric disorders, and prostate disease, may cause or worsen the symptoms of erectile dysfunction
- unknown – in a few cases, neither physical nor psychological causes are obvious. Vascular disease is likely to be the underlying cause in these cases.
Diagnosis of the cause of ongoing erectile dysfunction
If you have ongoing erectile dysfunction, have it investigated by a doctor. While occasional erectile dysfunction is normal, ongoing erectile dysfunction can be a symptom of a serious physical illness.
Your doctor can fully investigate any ongoing problems to check for any underlying medical cause that may also need treatment. This may include heart and blood vessel diseases, diabetes, high blood pressure or high cholesterol.
Tests can determine if the blood flow to your penis is affected. Blood tests can also help to determine if hormone problems, such as low testosterone, are causing the erectile dysfunction.
Once you find out whether your erectile dysfunction has a physical or psychological cause, you can get the proper course of treatment.
Treatment for erectile dysfunction
There are many treatments for erectile dysfunction. These include:
- changing your prescription medication if it is the cause
- psychotherapy and counselling
- oral medication (tablets) such as Viagra®, Cialis® and Levitra®
- external vacuum penile pump devices to create blood flow
- injections directly into the penis (such as Caverject Impulse®)
- penile prosthetic implants
- hormone therapy (rarely given)
- vascular surgery (rarely undertaken).
The first approach is to treat the underlying cause if one is identified. If no underlying cause is found, treatments to directly restore erectile function are used.
There are many treatments aimed at restoring erectile function. These can be grouped according to their level of invasiveness, being:
- non-invasive treatments
- minimally invasive treatments
- surgical treatments.
Doctors usually start with the least invasive treatment, such as tablets. If that doesn’t work, they may suggest more complicated injection treatments or surgery.
Non-invasive treatments for erectile dysfunction
Non-invasive treatments include:
- treating the underlying cause such as disease or depression
- oral medication (tablets)
- external devices such as vacuum penile pumps or rubber rings.
Medication (usually tablets) is effective in about 70 per cent of men with erectile dysfunction. Brand names include Viagra®, Cialis® and Levitra®. These are known as PDE5 inhibitors – they inhibit a particular enzyme in the penis, improving the erectile response to normal sexual stimulation.
Tablets should usually be taken at least one hour before sexual contact. With Cialis® tablets, taking a lower dose on a daily basis can allow more spontaneous sexual activity. Fatty meals and large amounts of alcohol can interfere with the body’s absorption of some of these medications.
Side effects may include facial flushing, nasal congestion, headaches and indigestion. Although these medications act in a similar way, there are important differences between them, such as the period of time for which they are active.
Your doctor will help you decide the best treatment for you. Oral medication may not be suitable for all men. If you are taking nitrate-containing heart medication, consult your doctor as erectile dysfunction medication may interact with these medications.
Counselling and psychotherapy can help if one of the underlying causes of your erectile dysfunction is psychological. Counselling can also benefit men who have lost sexual confidence, even though their erectile dysfunction is caused by physical factors. Counselling may be provided by your doctor, a psychologist or a psychiatrist. Your partner may also be involved.
External devices such as vacuum penile pumps or rubber rings can help with erectile dysfunction. A vacuum device is a pump placed over the penis to create blood flow. It draws blood into specific tissues of the penis (the two corpora cavernosa), mimicking a normal erection.
Placing a rubber ring around the base of the penis can help make it rigid enough for intercourse. This can be useful when you are able to get an erection, but have difficulty maintaining it.
Devices such as vacuums and rings are not always successful. Side effects may include penile pain, numbness, coldness and difficulty ejaculating. These devices need to be properly explained and fitted, and are best used after consultation with a doctor.
Minimally invasive treatments for erectile dysfunction
Minimally invasive treatments include:
- testosterone replacement therapy (TRT).
Some medication can increase blood flow when it is injected into the penis. A penile injection can create an erection within five to 10 minutes and last for up to one hour.
You will need to be shown how to use the penile injections properly and practise several supervised injections in the doctor’s surgery.
One possible side effect of penile injections is a painful erection lasting for hours, known as priapism. This occurs if the medication dose is too high. If an erection lasts for four hours or longer, your penis may be permanently damaged. In this situation, seek immediate medical attention.
Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is only suitable for men whose levels of testosterone are low. Before treatment, a doctor needs to investigate the cause of your low testosterone.
Surgical treatments for erectile dysfunction
Surgical treatments for erectile dysfunction include:
- penile prosthetic implant – a device that is surgically implanted into the penis. It can enable erections through a mechanism that is activated by squeezing on a specific part of the device. Penile prosthetic implants are expensive and generally used only as a last resort, if other treatments have not worked
- vascular surgery – targets the veins and arteries that supply blood to the penis. This is a major operation and is rarely used. Surgery may help men who have vascular damage due to trauma in the area around the penis – for example, after a car accident or fall.
Men with diabetes and erectile dysfunction
Men with have a higher risk of erectile dysfunction, especially if their diabetes is not well controlled. The reasons for this are not fully understood.
Over the long term, poor control of your diabetes may result in increased damage to the nerves and circulation that control blood flow to your penis. If you keep your blood glucose levels in the target range, these problems are less likely to occur.
Unproven claims for treating erectile dysfunction
Many products available ‘over the counter’ or via the internet claim to treat or even cure erectile dysfunction. These products are often expensive and usually have not been adequately tested for either their side effects or results.
There have been cases of serious health consequences from use of ‘erection therapies’ obtained online. Treat such products with caution and use only under the supervision of a doctor.
Where to get help
- , 2018, Healthymale (Andrology Australia).
- Hehemann MC and Kashanian JA 2016 ‘’, Translational Andrology and Urology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 187–194.
- Raheem OA, Su JJ, Wilson JR, et al. 2017 ‘’, American Journal of Men’s Health, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 552–563.
- Weber MF, Smith DP, O'Connell DL, et al. 2013 ‘’, Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 199, no. 2, pp. 107–111.