SummaryRead the full fact sheet
- Age affects the fertility of men and women.
- Age is the single biggest factor affecting a woman’s chance to conceive and have a healthy baby.
- By around age 30, a woman’s fertility starts to slowly decline and by mid-30s the decline speeds up.
- The risks of pregnancy complications increase as women age.
- Male fertility decline is more subtle, but male age over 45 years increases the time it takes for the female partner to conceive, the risk of miscarriage, and the child’s risk of mental health and developmental disorders.
Women's age and fertility
A woman is born with all the eggs she is going to have in her lifetime. Her eggs age with her, decreasing in quality and quantity. Age is the single most important factor affecting a . While and having a healthy baby, it doesn 't override the effects of age on a woman 's fertility.
A woman in her early to mid-20s has a 25–30% chance of getting every month. Fertility generally starts to slowly decline when a woman is in her early 30s, and after the age of 35 the decline speeds up. By age 40, the chance of getting pregnant in any monthly cycle is around 5%.
Women's age and IVF
It's a common misconception that can overcome the effects of age on fertility. A woman's age also affects the chance of success with IVF. In Australia, the chance of a live birth from one complete IVF cycle (which includes all fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfers following one ovarian stimulation) is about:
- 43% for women aged 30 to 34 years
- 31% for women aged 35 to 39 years
- 11% for women aged 40 to 44 years.
Women's age and pregnancy complications
The risk of pregnancy complications increases with age too. The risk of and chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus increase from age 35. Complications such as , (when the placenta covers all or part of the cervix, which increases the risk of the placenta detaching), and are also more common among older women than younger women.
Men's age and fertility
While the effects of female age on fertility have been known for a long time, more recent studies have found that the age of the male partner also affects the chance of pregnancy and pregnancy health.
generally starts to reduce around age 40 to 45 years when sperm quality decreases. Increasing male age reduces the overall chances of pregnancy and increases time to pregnancy (the number of it takes to become pregnant) and the risk of miscarriage and fetal death.
Children of older fathers also have an increased risk of (although this is still rare). Children of fathers aged 40 or over are 5 times more likely to develop an than children of fathers aged 30 or less. They also have a slightly increased risk of developing and other mental health disorders later in life.
Where to get help
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- McGrath J, Petersen L, Agerbo E, et al. 2014, ‘ ', JAMA Psychiatry, vol. 4081, epub.
- Schmidt L, Sobotka T, Bentzen JG, et al. 2012, ‘ ', Human Reproduction Update, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 29–43.
- Steiner AZ, Jukic AM 2016, ', Fertility and Sterility, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 1584–1588.
- Biro MA, Davey M-A, Carolan M, Kealy M 2012, ‘ ', The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 229–234.
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