Also called

  • FASD


  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) refers to a range of problems caused by exposure of a fetus to alcohol during pregnancy. 
  • There is no cure for FASD and its effects last a lifetime. 
  • A person with FASD can get help with their learning and behaviour to maximise their independence and achievements.
  • The World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women should avoid alcohol.
  • NHMRC recommends that for women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, not drinking alcohol is the safest option.

What is Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder?

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) refers to the range of problems caused by a mother exposing an unborn baby to alcohol during pregnancy.

If a woman drinks alcohol while she is pregnant, the alcohol crosses the placenta from her blood into the baby’s bloodstream and the baby is exposed to similar concentrations of alcohol as the mother.

The effects of alcohol on a fetus include: 

  • harm to the development of the fetal nervous system, including the brain 
  • under-nourishment of the growing baby 
  • triggering of changes in the development of the baby’s face, resulting in the typical FASD facial features.

Babies severely affected by FASD are at risk of dying before they are born. 

Not all babies exposed to alcohol develop FASD. The risk of harm to the fetus is highest when the mother drinks a large amount of alcohol very often – for example if she is a heavy drinker or frequently binge drinks.

To avoid FASD, avoid alcohol when pregnant

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia’s main health research organisation, recommends that for women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, not drinking alcohol is the safest option. 

The World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women be advised not to drink alcohol.

Diagnosis of FASD

An accurate diagnosis of FASD is important. It can help provide appropriate care for the child and prevent FASD happening again in any later pregnancy.

The three main features used to make a diagnosis of FASD are:

  1. significant problems with learning and behaviour
  2. certain facial features that are known to be associated with FASD
  3. a history of prenatal alcohol exposure.

Facial features associated with FASD include:

  • short horizontal length of the eye opening, from the inner corner to the outer corner of the eye
  • a smooth philtrum (the usually ridged area of skin between the upper lip and the nose) 
  • a thin upper lip.

Learning and behavioural problems may include:

  • learning difficulties
  • memory problems
  • impulsiveness
  • limited attention span / ease of distraction / hyperactivity
  • difficulty relating actions to consequences
  • difficulty following instructions (but able to repeat them verbally)
  • difficulty with abstract thinking – such as about mathematics, money or time 
  • slow cognitive processing (thinking)
  • difficulty with social relationships

Other findings that are seen more commonly in children with FASD are birth defects, slow growth before and after birth and delayed development. Detailed information about the characteristics of FASD can be found in the NOFASD fact sheet ‘FASD – Characteristics across the lifespan’.

The Australian Guide to the diagnosis of FASD sets out the diagnostic criteria to help doctors make a diagnosis of FASD. These guidelines were updated in 2016.

In severe cases, FASD may be diagnosed at birth, but in many cases, the diagnosis occurs later, when the child is having problems with learning or behaviour. Sometimes, the condition is never diagnosed.

Children grow and develop at different speeds. If you’re worried about your child’s development it’s a good idea to speak with your GP or maternal and child health nurse.

Treatment of FASD

FASD causes lifelong disability and cannot be cured, but a person with FASD can be assisted by programs to help them with their learning and behaviour. Such assistance can enable a person with FASD to maximise their independence and achievements. 

Treatment programs are individualised and are usually coordinated by a developmental paediatrician. A wide range of educational and behavioural strategies have been shown to be effective in children with FASD, and stimulant medication may be helpful for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. 

Occurrence of FASD is unknown

Researchers estimate that FASD occurs in one in 100 children, but the incidence of FASD varies from study to study for a number of reasons, including: 

  • While FASD is considered internationally to be the leading preventable cause of intellectual and developmental problems, there is evidence that FASD is under-diagnosed. Parents and doctors may not realise that FASD is the cause of a child’s developmental problems. 
  • Maternal intake of alcohol varies during a pregnancy and can be difficult to accurately record.
  • Alcohol may not be the only drug consumed during pregnancy. 
  • There are many environmental and individual factors that can contribute to learning and behavioural problems. Many children diagnosed with alcohol-related problems are exposed to social difficulties that may also impact on their development. 

Where to get help 

  • Hill M, 2006, Abnormal development – fetal alcohol syndrome, University of New South Wales Embryology Unit, Australia. More information here.
  • Bower C, Elliott EJ (on behalf of the Steering Group) 2016, Australian Guide to the Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Report to the Australian Government Department of Health.More information here.
  • Pregnancy and Alcohol – risks and effects on the developing baby, 2016, Child and Youth Health, South Australia. More information here.
  • May PA, Gossage JP, 2011, ‘Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Not as simple as it might seem’, Alcohol Research, vol. 34, no. 1. More information here.
  • Australian guidelines to reduce health risks from drinking alcohol, 2009, National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Government. More information here.
  • Is low dose alcohol exposure during pregnancy harmful? 2011, Health Evidence Network, World Health Organization. More information here.

More information

Birth defects

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Birth defect conditions

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This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by: Victorian Clinical Genetics Services (VCGS)

Last updated: October 2016

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