SummaryRead the full fact sheet
- Teeth grinding (bruxism) is involuntary clenching, grinding and gnashing of the teeth that usually happens during sleep.
- Causes can include stress, concentration and use of illegal drugs.
- Treatments include bite splints (to be worn at night), repair of tooth damage, and stress management therapy.
On this page
About teeth grinding
Bruxism is the involuntary clenching, grinding and gnashing of the teeth. About half of the population does it from time to time. Around 5% of the population are regular, forceful tooth grinders. Often it happens during sleep, but some people grind their teeth when they are awake.
Usually, a person doesn’t realise that they grind their teeth in their sleep. The partner who shares their bed (and hears the grinding noises at night) is often the first to notice the problem. Parents may also hear it in their sleeping children. Teeth grinding can be a result of stress. For example, some people grind their teeth when they are angry, concentrating or feeling anxious.
Symptoms of teeth grinding
Signs and symptoms of teeth grinding include:
- headache, jaw joint and/or ear pain
- aching teeth, particularly just after waking up
- aching and/or stiffness of the face and temples just after waking up
- aching or stiffness in the jaws while chewing, particularly during breakfast
- clenching the jaw when angry, anxious or concentrating
- temperature-sensitive teeth
- cracked or chipped tooth enamel
- tooth indentations on the tongue
- raised tissue on the inside of the cheek caused by biting
- loose teeth.
Signs of teeth grinding
Problems caused by teeth grinding may include:
- cracked tooth enamel
- more wear and tear on the teeth than is normal
- broken teeth or broken restorations (for example, fillings)
- strain on the jaw joint (temporomandibular joint)
- pain in the jaw joint or limited movement
- sore jaw muscles
- tooth loss (rare)
- enlargement of the jaw muscles (rare)
- teeth being more sensitive to hot and cold things.
Risk Factors for tooth grinding
- Stress and anxiety
- Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
- Drugs: Antidepressants, anti-psychotics, amphetamines, cocaine
Your dentist or other oral health professional can assess the influence of these factors.
Teeth grinding in children
Many parents will have noticed the sound of their children grinding their teeth at some point, often as they sleep. However, because children’s teeth and jaws change and grow so quickly it’s not usually a damaging habit that requires treatment and most outgrow it as they get older.
The main risk factors for tooth grinding in children include:
- Pain when teeth are coming through
- Emotional stress and anxiety
- Medications such as antidepressants, anti-psychotics
- Medical conditions such as cerebral palsy, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Many of the signs that children grind their teeth are the same as for adults
The management of teeth grinding in children depends of the amount of wear, the child’s age, the symptoms experienced and the needs of the child and parent or care giver. A dentist or other oral health professional is best placed to make a full assessment of each child’s situation.
Treatment for teeth grinding
If you think you grind your teeth, speak with your dentist or other oral health professional. They will look at your teeth and talk about possible treatment options that may include:
- repair of tooth damage
- rule out other types of tooth wear such as erosion
- assessment of risk factors including sleep disordered breathing
- a special mouthguard (‘bite splint’) to wear at night so that the guard is worn down instead of your teeth. In most cases, a bite splint will only help with the symptoms and will not stop you from grinding altogether.
Management of bruxism can include:
- stress management therapy
- relaxation techniques
- cognitive behaviour therapy
- good sleep hygiene
- regular exercise.
Where to get help
- Your dentist
- Dental Health Services Victoria provides public dental services through the Royal Dental Hospital Melbourne and community dental clinics, for eligible people. For more information about public dental services Tel. (03) 9341 1000, or 1800 833 039 outside Melbourne metro
- Australian Dental Association ‘Find a Dentist’ search function or Tel. (03) 8825 4600
- Your GP (doctor)
- Psychologist, to help with stress management
- Bruxism, Medline Plus, National Institute of Health. USA.
- Teeth grinding, Australian Dental Association.
- Balasubramaniam R, Paesani D, Koyano K et al. 2017, ‘Sleep bruxism’ in C Farah, R Balasubramaniam, M McCullough. (eds), Contemporary Oral Medicine, Springer International Publishing.
- Manfredini D, Serra-Negra J, Carboncini F, Lobbezoo F 2017, ‘Current concepts of bruxism’, The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 437–438.
- Manfredini D, Restrepo C, Diaz-Serrano K, Winocur E, Lobbezoo F. Prevalence of Sleep Bruxism in Children: A Systemic Review of the Literature Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2013; 40(8): 631-642
- Reis LO, Ribeiro RA, Martins CC, DeVito KL. Association between Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorders in Children: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis, International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2019; 29:585-595
- Davies SJ, Gray RJM, Qualtrough AJE. Management of Tooth Surface Loss, British Dental Journal. 2002; 192(1): 11-23
- Harley K. Tooth wear in the child and youth British Dental Journal. 1999; 186 (10): 492-486