Each year in Australia around 2,000 people die from skin cancer; yet most skin cancers are preventable, and the majority of skin cancers can be successfully treated, if found early.
While prevention is better than cure, being familiar with your own skin should help you to detect any suspicious lumps or spots as soon as they develop, at a stage when they have a better chance of being successfully treated.
Types of skin cancer
The three main types of skin cancer are:
- basal cell carcinoma
- squamous cell carcinoma
These are named after the type of cell they start from.
Basal cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
Prevention of skin cancer
Whenever UV levels reach 3 or above, a combination of sun protection measures (broad-brimmed hats, clothing, sunscreen, shade, and if practical, sunglasses) are needed. Don't just wait for hot and sunny days to use sun protection as UV can still be damaging, even on cool, cloudy days.
The sun protection times indicate when the UV is forecast to be 3 or above and are available:
Check the sun protection times each day, and during those times use a combination of five SunSmart measures:
- slip on some sun-protective clothing that covers as much skin as possible
- slop on SPF 30 or higher sunscreen. Make sure it is broad spectrum (protects against UVA and UVB rays) and is water-resistant. Put it on 20 minutes before you go outdoors and reapply every two hours (even if the label states it is four hours water resistant). Never use sunscreen to extend the time you spend in the sun
- slap on a broad-brimmed hat that protects your face, head, neck and ears
- seek shade
- slide on some sunglasses – make sure they meet Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 1067. Optometry Australia recommends using eye protection all year.
Take extra care during the middle of the day when UV levels are most intense.
Use the same SunSmart measures for the rest of your family too.
Read about skin cancer and sun safety for children.
Be aware of your skin
All Australians should become familiar with their skin. Be aware of your entire body as skin cancers can sometimes occur on parts of the body that are not exposed to the sun.
Use a hand-held mirror to check the skin on your back and the back of your neck, or ask someone else to look for you. Don't forget your armpits, inner legs, ears, eyelids, hands and feet. Check between your fingers and toes. Use a comb to move sections of hair aside and inspect your scalp.
Be alert to new or changing moles, freckles and spots. If you notice anything unusual, see your doctor straight away. If you don't have a regular doctor, you can make an appointment with any doctor for a skin examination.
If you are considering using a skin cancer clinic, first find out about the services offered and the expertise of the staff.
Skin cancer – what to look for
Using the ABCDE system can be a good way to check for changes to your skin. While performing this skin check, remember that if you notice anything unusual (including any of the ABCDE changes, or the development of a new spot), you should visit your doctor.
The ABCDE system reminds you to check five sorts of changes:
- Asymmetry (unevenness) – one half of the spot doesn't match the other
- Border – the edges of the spot are irregular, ragged, notched or blurred
- Colour – the colour of the spot is not the same all over and may include shades of brown or black, red, white or blue
- Diameter – the spot is larger than 6 mm across (about 1/4 inch) or is growing larger
- Evolution or elevation – the spot may change in shape or size (enlarge) and a flat spot may become raised in a matter of a few weeks.
Also be aware of any mole or freckle that:
- changes over a period of months
- grows in size
- changes shape
- becomes mottled in colour
- has a persistent itch.
If you notice anything new or unusual on your skin, see your doctor.
Read more about how to check for skin cancer.
Where to get help
This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by:
Content on this website is provided for information purposes only. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional. The information and materials contained on this website are not intended to constitute a comprehensive guide concerning all aspects of the therapy, product or treatment described on the website. All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions and to ascertain whether the particular therapy, service, product or treatment described on the website is suitable in their circumstances. The State of Victoria and the Department of Health & Human Services shall not bear any liability for reliance by any user on the materials contained on this website.